The Dharma Initiative is the desperate attempt to save the world thought up by the United Nations. In the Sri Lanka Video we learn that the Dharma Initiative is started to change the core factors of the Valenzetti Equation AKA The Numbers. At The time of the Dharma Initiative's creation the world in plagued by nuclear war, biological war, chemical warfare, over population and disease. They intend to change The Numbers by creating a Time Capsule. The location of this Time Capsule is the island. The objective of this Time Capsule is to create a safeguard for the human race to ensure that if the outside world destroys itself there is still a small number of humans left that could eventually leave the Island via Submarine or the boat observed in Stranger In A Strange Land to Repopulate the planet.
The Arrow Edit
The Arrow Station was found by the survivors of the tail section crash. We don't know much about this station other then it had boxes containing copies of the bible in it. The station itself was probably used for storage of things that would be needed to restart the Species.
The Staff Edit
The Staff exist on the island for medical reasons. The inhabitants of the Time Capsule would need medical care just as anyone else would. It would be equipped as a nursery as well because the project would be generational.
The Swan Edit
The Swan is a station meant to see if the inhabitants of the island are ready mentally to return to the real world. The button is a gauge to see if the members of The Time Capsule are ready to repopulate the Earth. The button keeps the people faithful and when they don't push it means the Members of the project aren't capable of repopulating the planet. But, if the members use the fail-safe key it gives them another chance by somehow giving them a vision of Mrs. Hawkings and then safely delivering them onto the island with the ability to influence events that haven't happened yet by giving them visions of the future. These visions will help them change the members of the Time Capsule into better people and get them ready to Repopulate the planet. Desmond Came out of the Explosion naked and the light blinded everyone for a few minutes which could have given someone time to get him and do something to him, Maybe Surgery and then give him a drug to wipe his memory and put him into the jungle.
The Flame Edit
The Flame is a communication station so the inhabitants could keep track of the outside world, both by using cameras and talking to them.
The Pearl Edit
(Read The Swan First) The Pearl exist to monitor the the inhabitants of the Swan. It may be how the people who may have done something to Desmond knew to take him.
The Hydra Edit
The Hydra may have existed to look at the DNA of animals to see how much damage was done to the environment by the Outside World's pollutants and environmental climate changes
The Looking Glass and Naomi Edit
The Looking Glass exists to stop to emit a beacon so the Outside World could find the Island and to Jam Signals once the Outside World's selfish nature makes them want to invade the Island to save themselves. Some people have been trying to get onto the Island for years like Penny who at the end of Season 2 receives a call telling her that the Island has been found. Something broke between the time of the last food drop and the end of Season 2 between the inhabitants of the island and the Outside World. Because of this Ben orders all incoming transmissions jammed and the beacons turned off. This is why he arrives at the dock in a boat. Naomi's company was hired by Penny and when Charlie calls her she pretends to be clueless about what he is talking about. Penny and possibly her father are trying to secure themselves a place on the Island.
The Drops Edit
The food and medicine drops are made to help give the Members of the Time Capsule Society as much as possible before the Outside World ceases to exist. They will not be stopped until the Outside World can no longer support the island, at that time the occupants of the island will have to fend for themselves and grow their own food.
The Monster Edit
As Rousseau says many times The Monster is a security system. It exists in case anyone tries to get the best of the inhabitants of the society and doesn't cross into the barracks because it may mistake someone else for an intruder.
The Others Edit
The others invaded the Island because they wanted to be the ones that preserved the human race. This invasion is what Ben talks about in Through The Looking Glass when he says that the last time someone found the Island alot of people died. He was referring to the extermination of the real DHARMA initiative. The others will keep the same mission as the DHARMA Initiative just they will be the ones to execute it.
Juliet, The Children and The Kidnappings Edit
The others noticed that children could not be born on the Island. They needed children to be born or they would have no-one to repopulate the Earth come 200 years. So the company that funded the others invasion sent a scientist to solve the problem. This scientist was Juliet. Ben would not allow Juliet to leave because they needed her. Because the others needed younger members to help repopulate they started kidnapping children like Alex and raising them as their own so they would follow in their parents path. That is why Alex didn't know about her mother. The kidnappings took place so the others had more people to help them reproduce so they took the good people who would understand why they had to do what they were doing and were capable of producing healthy children.
Kate and her old boyfriend Tom made a Time Capsule